Monday, February 22, 2010
Sunday, February 21, 2010
If not okay, I'll do the speculations of true/false evidence of Global Warming.
Saturday, February 20, 2010
Friday, February 19, 2010
Thursday, February 18, 2010
Saturday, February 6, 2010
One of the greatest blessings us as Americans possess is that of freedom. As citizens of this Country, we can enjoy the commodities of full political and civil freedoms that are relatively blocked to other, less fortunate countries. Often times a pattern of open and closed economies plays an immense role on the success of a Country. It is the opinion of many that “trade creates the habit of freedom”(48). Daniel T. Griswold is a firm believer that open economies can implicate peace and freedom in Countries around the World. Griswold is a University Trade Policy Director in Washington DC and has been the author of many published studies concerning globalization and trade. One of which being “Trading Tyranny for Freedom: How Open Markets Till the Soil for Democracy.” The article successfully persuades it’s audience of the positive correlation between economic openness and both political and civil liberties by presenting numerous convincing and supportive evidences, providing examples that we, as citizens of America, can relate to, and establishing literary devices such as pathos, that appeal to us emotionally.
One of the major ways that Griswold creates a strong basis for persuading his audience is through his use of statistics and evidences. This is something he strongly believes in and he utilizes the supporting evidences and facts that prove his theory to be correct. To convince the reader that economic openness influences a democracy “by raising living standards and expanding the middle class”(49), he includes a study that proved that “nations that ranked in the top quintile in terms of economic openness from 1980 to 1998 experiences annual economic growth that is almost five times faster that those nations in the bottom quintile of openness”(49,50). By including not only this study by James Gwartney and Robert Lawson, but also many more that have reached similar conclusions, made his argument a great deal more convincing.
Friday, February 5, 2010
Ethos is the credibility the author establishes for himself or herself. First off, Steven Staples works under the Crime and Social Justice Associations. Working under this association and under social justice, has greatly established his ethos, especially under this topic. Throughout the article, Staples has made many facts throughout history. For example, BAE systems, a military contracts company, has greatly influenced government regulations, and has even designed export controls to countries at war, so that they can make a profit in that country. These arguments do seem logical, and establish credibility to Staples, helping him make a persuasive argument.
Brett D Schaefer speaks frequently on international affairs to business groups, congressional staff and academic audiences. He has proven himself by writing over 120 public policy papers. Mr. Schaefer has proven that he has a greater view of economics through his experience and master’s degree in international developmental economics from the School of International Service at American University in Washington, D.C. On March 8th, 2003, he wrote an analysis entitled “Promoting Growth and Prosperity in the Developing World through Economic Freedom,” published in Economic Perspectives. Brett D Schaefer is highly effective in his argument through use of established creditability, fabulous appeal to human emotion, the ability to be concise and powerful, and his ability to support his argument. He uses these means to argue that the assistance in volumes of hundreds of billions of dollars from developed nations, while intended for good, are not as effective in all the under developed countries if the country is not considered free to use that assistance to create lasting wealth and prosperity.
Mr. Schaefer not only relies on his own rooted creditability, but other sources of authentic validity. The argument for his argument does not fall on his word and logic alone. He uses the data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), reports from World Bank in conjunction with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), analysis by other economists, the Heritage Foundation, and current legislation passed by the former President George W Bush in 2004 which was The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA).
Globalization is the change in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased cross-border trade, investment, and cultural exchange (Web citation). Though the world has been globalizing for centuries, in the past few decades the progression of globalization in the world economy has increased due to modern technological advances. This surge in world wide economic globalization has led to much discussion and analysis by many to identify the possible affects that such changes could have on nations' individual economies.
In the article “globalization: threat or opportunity for the U.S. economy?” the author Robert Parry succeeds at arguing that globalization is an opportunity for America’s economy by, providing convincing statists to discredit opposing views, considering his audience, and effectively using literary devices.In order to present the argument that globalization is a positive thing for America, the author presents many of the concerns that the opposition to economic globalization has and shows how these things are not true concerns through various statistics. The first and one of the more common argument that he abolishes is that globalization leads to outsourcing and off shoring causing many Americans to lose their jobs. By providing the statistics how many jobs are lost for "all kinds of reasons" in comparison to the jobs lost to foreign workers he is able to disconnect the correlation many put to outsourcing and job loss. The author then goes on to show the reader that globalization will also provide more jobs for Americans and boost economic activity. He does so by listing the evidences that U.S. in sources more for office work and that foreign firms are now employing more workers. The second position he effectively argues is that the creation of jobs in other countries doesn't limit productivity or growth in the United States. Supported by specific statistics he explains how the wide spread information technology (a result of globalization) in the United States has greatly increased productivity. Also there is no way that someone could say that growth is slowing or that Jobs are not being created in this country when "a quarter of today's labor force is in jobs that didn't even exist in 1967." The points that he makes in his article are all backed up with specific examples and data, which discredit the point of view of the opposition to a more globalized economy.
In any large industry there has always been a problem with too much power developing within certain companies. These monopolies are now policed and controlled by government regulations, limiting their potential for corrupting markets and influencing too many people. The media industry is claimed by many to have become controlled by these type of large corporations and is supposedly corrupting the information given to the general public; therefore, leading to a more globalized world that is controlled by specific people. Benjamin Compaine’s article, “Global Media” fails in proving that large “media barons” (37) are not overrunning the global media market by only stating statistics and trying to establish ethos rather than establishing strong pathos and utilizing literary devices to get more general appeal.
Although I do agree with his argument and I feel that he gets the necessary facts out to back up his claims, only stating statistic after statistic really wears on a reader and even causes confusion at times. Just in the first section of his article, he names 19 different companies and speaks of different sales and acquisitions they made in recent years. For most people, an argument would be just as strongly made if he would have used fewer names and gone into more detail about that company and the importance of those statistics behind each company. Having large amounts of data is important, but it needs to be used in manner that is easily understood and that proves a point very clearly.
Globalization, a typical pattern that has been followed all throughout history where people trade ideals, beliefs, concepts, technology etc. to develop and apply them to there own selves. According to the dictionary “globalization” is described as, “develop of be developed so as to make possible international influence or operation.” Obviously, our world is indeed very “globalized” with other countries, which can be a major benefit but also a major problem with some negative consequences, such as global climate change and the negative effects of green house gases. In the article, “ Going Local on a Global Scale: Rethinking Food trade in the Era of Climate Change, Dumping, and Rural Poverty” by Kirsten Schwind, Schwind attempts to convince her readers that trade of food has negatively impacted economies around the world. She gives examples such large corporate stores take away business from small local farms and business, the negative amounts of pollution causing problems for growing crops and many examples of unnecessary trade, Using several literary devices: tone, word choice and imagery as well as ethos and logos she gives off a vibe of help to catch the readers attention.Our world today revolves on a global trade scale, we all thrive on a dependency on other states or countries, for example we as Americans rely on foreign oil because we do not have enough for our own population, and therefore we must have it imported from elsewhere. Food trade is also a big issue. In the economic theory of competitive advantage, “economies hold that each region should specialize in producing only what it can produce most cheaply, then trade with other regions for everything else” (167). Yeah, this is somewhat correct but Schwind argues that it is taking more of a poll than most are aware of. “For example, the potentially cataclysmic impacts of climate change mean the environmental costs of transporting goods long distances are much higher than previously thought.” She ties in the impact of global warming and how dependency of fossil fuels not only raise the price of food being transported, but also is doing damage to the planet. The global warming theory is a major debate in the world right now and how she ties it in with her argument makes her points clear and strong. “ Climate change is raising sea temperatures and flooding coastal areas, and has the potential to increase crop failures, cause mass extinctions, and spur more destructive weather patterns such as hurricanes- all with profound implications for agriculture and human habitation” (168). Schwind makes an impressive point about how not only transporting food can hurt our climate but also affect the other countries that are trying to rebuild and develop
Human Trafficking is a very serious problem in today’s world. While human trafficking has been going on for a long time, people are just starting to realize how serious this issue is, and how little is being done about it. The article, “Think Again: Human Trafficking,” by David A. Feingold succeeds in clearing up misconceptions about human trafficking and thereby persuading people to take action against this crime. Feingold does by establishing pathos, ethos, and logos
A major element of Feingold’s article is the extensive use of pathos, or emotion appeals. One of the most powerful ways to utilize pathos in an argument and really tug on the heartstrings of the reader is to use examples of the impoverished and the powerless. Feingold does exactly this when he uses specific examples of women and girls being exploited through human trafficking. Feingold states, “Another study by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) looked at east African girls trafficked to the Middle East and found that most were bound for oppressive domestic work, and often raped and beaten along the way” (192). Nobody wants people to be raped and beaten, but little girls being raped and beaten is a lot more shocking and anger-inducing. Readers will have a very passionate emotional response to hearing that little girls and being raped and beaten as a result of human trafficking, and they will want to do something about it. Feingold’s use of this study is an extremely effective way of calling people to action. Feingold uses women and girls to get an emotional response from the reader again when he states, “In Brazil, for example, girls may be trafficked for sex work from rural to urban areas” (197). Nobody wants little girls to be sexually abused and exploited for sex. The reader may imagine their little sister, maybe the same age as these Brazilian girls being trafficked into the sex trade. They can’t imagine the horrors and atrocities that would happened to their little sisters and they get furious. Once again, using these women and girls as examples of human trafficking is a very successful way of persuading the reader that human trafficking is very serious and wrong. A little later in the article, Feingold again appeals to the emotions of the readers through another statistic. He states, “The ILO estimates the total illicit profits produced by trafficked forced laborers in one year to be just short of $32 billion. Although that is hardly an insignificant amount, it is a small business compared to the more than $320 billion international trade in illicit drugs” (193). This particular statistics is extremely good at making an emotional appeal to the readers. Most readers will know that the drug trade is a very big deal and is incredibly appalling. By using a statistic that compares the profits of human trafficking compared to the profits of the drug trade, Feingold is able to establish the severity of human trafficking in the readers mind. While it is still not as big of a problem as the drug trade, it is still tremendously significant number, and the reader realizes this. The reader understands that human trafficking is not some small issue that will take care of itself; they realize it’s severe, and they need to do something about it before it becomes as bad as the drug trade. This statistic, elicits this emotional response from the reader, and is very effective in calling the reader to action. Feingold again uses pathos to connect the issue of human trafficking on a more domestic basis in the United States. He does this when he says, “U.S. government figures indicate the presence of some 200,000 trafficked victims in the United States” (195). 200,000 people is an astonishing number of human trafficking victims especially here in the United States, and readers will definitely have an emotion reaction to this large number of victims especially on their “home turf” so to speak. When readers realize that this issue also applies to the United States, they will want to do something about it. To go along with the aforementioned quote, Feingold also states, “In fact, between 2001 and 2003, only 110 traffickers were prosecuted by the Justice Department. Of these, 77 were convicted of pled guilty” (195). By comparing the extremely high number of 200,000 trafficking victims to the very small number of 77 traffickers convicted, Feingold is again able to extract an emotional response from the reader as well as proving that persecution will not stop traffickers. Readers will realize that more needs to be done besides prosecution to stop human trafficking.
Americans are often concerned about the economy. People have varying viewpoints and ideas of what ought to be done when it comes to improving the economy. One of the issues that is often a subject of debate is globalization, or free international trade. Some people are for it, some against it, and others fall somewhere in between. It is an important issue because it has a great impact on the U.S. and world economies. In April 2004, an address was given on the topic of globalization by Robert T. Parry to the Hawaii Society of Investment Professionals. In May of that same year, his address was adapted to article form and published by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. The article, “Globalization: Threat or Opportunity for the U.S. Economy?”, succeeds in persuading its audience to support globalization as an opportunity for the U.S. economy by establishing credibility, using facts and statistics its audience can understand, appealing to human emotion, and using effective literary devices.
People offer opinions on just about everything, all the time. Whether or not the ideas are valued often depends on the individual offering the opinion and how they are perceived by others. When those individuals can give others a reason to value what they say, they are able to influence others and make stronger arguments. Opinions on the topic of globalization are no exception. In the article, Robert Parry makes an argument in favor of globalization and successfully gives people a reason to value what he says.
When asked what was the significance of winning the Nobel Peace Prize as an African woman, Wangari Maathai replied, “I think that the Nobel committee had a message to send to the world - that there is a strong link between sustainable, accountable, and equitable management of resources and governance” (Cahill 1). Her organization, The Green Belt Movement, focuses on environmental conservation in an effort to “plant seeds of peace” (Maathai 151). The article “Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech,” by Wangari Maathai, succeeds in persuading its audience to promote environmental conservation through its use of effective literary devices, pathetic arguments, statistics regarding The Green Belt Movement’s work, and a positive outlook on the future.
Word choice, tone, and the imagery used in her article all play a large role in convincing the audience that this is a cause worth supporting. The word choice in this article seems to have been selected very carefully and for specific reasons. When referring to the deforestation in Africa, she tends to use words such as “degradation”, “destroy”, and “devastate”. These words all present the idea that the act of deforestation is terrible and is only harming the environment. It doesn’t allow you to consider the idea that maybe the deforestation is necessary. Another important example of good word choice includes her use of positive terms when talking about the ability of the African people to make a difference. Some examples of these terms include “empowered”, “overcome”, and “take action”. These words all help the average person to feel as if they can truly make a difference in the fight against deforestation and take a step towards peace.
Establishing ethos or credibility is very important when writing an article with the intent to persuade or inform ones audience. The first sign of credibility that Perry’s argument shows is where the article appeared and its background. Adapted from an oral speech to investment professionals the article is part of a series of economic letters from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (FRBSF). One can assume that because Perry gave the speech he is an employee of the Federal Reserve. Being an employee for the Federal Reserve requires professional level skills and knowledge of economics. This gives automatic credibility to Perry because he works with the U.S economy; his job is to help keep the economy in good standing.
In economics the theory of comparative advantage is used, which means each region should specialize in producing only what it can produce most cheaply and then trade with other regions for everything else. This theory makes sense but Kirsten Schwind points out the fact that it should be reexamined and look at its harmful effects. She points out the fact that, “Impacts of climate change mean that environmental cost of transporting goods long distances are much higher than previously thought” (Schwind). There is much discussion in our world about global warming and what is causing it. This is a hot topic in politics and the way she mentions how trade could be a cause to global warming makes her argument strong. If our climate continues to change, “raising sea temperatures, and flooding coastal areas, it can increase crop failure.” Schwind makes these profound statements to show the seriousness of how trade affects our climate. Not only does trade hurt our climate but it does not help those countries who are developing, trying to establish their own government and economy.
Compaine structures his argument by counter-arguing the points made by antagonists of global media. Throughout the article, there are bolded lines, set apart from the others portraying these myths. "Global Media Drown Out Local Content" (41), "A few big companies are taking over the world's media" (37), etc. These headings are written in all caps, with his writing falling underneath them. This gives the feel that he is calmly giving his evidence-filled statements, while the opposition is making large, generalized arguments. Through the length of his article, he contributes thoughts refuting eight different myths of the global media. His wide array of topics, and suggestions thoroughly round his argument as he leaves few questions for one to think of in rebuttal.
Throughout her speech, Wangari Maathai ensures the reader knows of her credibility on the topics addressed. First, the fact that the speech is a Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech, automatically assures the reader of Maathai’s ethos. The Nobel Peace Prize is a prestigious award, and thus the awardees opinions and viewpoints are highly regarded. At the beginning of her speech, Maathai takes several measures to raise her credibility. She reminds everyone that she is the first African woman to receive such a prestigious award, and then refers to other individuals who have been African Peace laureates. The list includes, “Presidents Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the late Chief Albert Luthuli, the late Anwar el Sadat and the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan” (152). This list contains many prestigious individuals automatically increasing Maathai’s ethos.
“Global Media” is full of real-life examples to support his claims. This is effective because it shows the extent of effort that went into researching this article, and it helps Compaine establish credibility as an author. He pulls research done on large media corporations from all over the world, not just major power players in global politics. For example, while addressing the issue of “Corporate Ownership is Killing Hard-Hitting Journalism,” Compaine references two large media companies, one government owned in Japan, and one family owned in Brazil. Both of these examples support the claim that alternatives to corporate media companies are not more effective than large journalism corporations. This is relevant because Japan is a great power in global politics, while Brazil is a rising power, but nowhere near Japan’s level. By providing examples of the same result in two vastly different countries, it adds more weight to the argument and shows that the conclusion can be reached anywhere, not just in the “developed” countries. By including examples from all over the world, it also gives the reader the sense that Compaine is not ignoring the issue and selecting evidence that best supports his claim. Rather, it suggests that he is absorbing all the research and basing his conclusion of the research, and not vice-versa. Supporting examples from all over the world really help Compaine establish credibility as a writer.
The author used many examples throughout the article to help readers recognize benefits of cultural exchange that they may have otherwise forgotten or taken for granted. To support his point of how the freedom to choose is reinforced by globalization, he stated, “Many of the best things come from cultures mixing: Paul Gauguin painting in Polynesia, the African rhythms in rock ‘n’ roll, the great British curry” (25). He then adds, “Admire the many-colored faces of France’s World Cup-winning soccer team” (25). Throughout the article the reader is reminded of the food, movies, languages, and technology that can be enjoyed only through exchange with other nations. The reader then begins to see just a few of the good things that that come through freedom to choose.
Thursday, February 4, 2010
There has been much discussion lately on the topic of globalization. Many articles have given sufficient evidence as to whether or not the idea of globalization is the right course of action. One such article, "In Defense of Globalization", by Abbus J. Ali, cancels out all doubts about globalization and supports the original idea of a unified world. This article accomplishes its task in persuading the audience to believe in the benefits of globalization by the use of credible resources, literary devices, emotional appeals to unity, and by having a basis of understanding the actual concept of globalization.
In this article there are many instances in which the author will quote from an outside source. At first he uses quotes from various persons to show controversy on the subject of globalization. One example of this can be seen when he quotes Roland Robinson by saying that he "cautions that there is a danger that globalization 'will become an intellectual 'play zone,' a site for the expression of residual social theoretical interests, interpretive indulgences, or the display of world ideological preferences'" (2). He also states the opinion of Jacques Attali when he says that there are "powerful minorities that seek to take full advantage of the market economy" (1). The author uses these negative ideas to acknowledge that there are contrary ideas out there to tear down globalization. He then concludes this controversy strongly by explaining that these ideas "empty globalization from its true meaning and intent" (2), thereby showing that the facts brought up against the idea of globalization are vain allusions that tentative people put their anxiety in.
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